RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RtI)
What is RtI?
Response-to-Intervention is a process, which includes the provision of systematic, research-based instruction and interventions to struggling learners. It assumes that the instruction/interventions are matched to student needs and that the monitoring of progress is continuous. Furthermore, RtI is designed as an early intervention to prevent long-term academic failure. As such, RtI can replace and/or augment the I.Q. discrepancy model in the identification of learning disabilities. RtI is considered a general education service, but can also be implemented in special education settings.
The following is a listing of the key features of the RtI process:
- RtI is primarily a general education initiative designed to address the needs of struggling learners early in their educational experience.
- RtI is based on a problem-solving model that uses data to inform decision-making.
- RtI interventions are systematically applied and derived from research-based practices.
- RtI is highly dependent on progress monitoring and data collection.
- RtI intervention plans are designed, implemented, and monitored by a multi-disciplinary team of professionals.
- RtI can replace the I.Q. discrepancy model for determining the presence of a learning disability.
The 3 Tier Model
Although there may be different applications of the RtI process, it is generally depicted as a three (3) Tier model, which includes:
Tier 1-the provision of general screening and group interventions that usually represent the core instructional program. If this instruction is adequately differentiated, 80-90% of the students will respond and achieve established benchmarks. Assessments occur three to four times per year.
Tier 2- if students do not make adequate progress in Tier 1, more intensive services and targeted interventions, usually in small group settings, are provided in addition to the instruction in the general curriculum. Progress is monitored more closely, at least bi-weekly, and the research-based interventions could last approximately 10 to 12 weeks.
Tier 3- for students who do not adequately respond to the targeted interventions in Tier 2, eligibility for special educational services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) would be considered. Additional testing may be warranted and students would receive individualized, intensive interventions targeted to the skills deficits.